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?? 2001 ?????? 15 (2001/01/15) (9 ??? ???)
Alexa ???? ? 7 (????? 2010 ) [2]
????? ???? ???? ????? ????

???????? ???? ? [3] ????? ?? ?? ? ????? ? ??? ????? ???????? ??? ????? ?? ????? ??? ????? ???????? . ?? 15 ?????? ?????? (??? ?? 3.3 ?????? ?? ??????? ) ??? ?? ???? ????? ???? ???????? ????? ??? ??? ?? ????? ? ? ?????? ???? ?????? ?? ?? ?? ???? ?????? ??? ???? ?? ???? ?? ?????? ?? ????. [4] ???????? ??? ??? ?????? ?? ?? ??? 2001 ???? ??? ? ??? ????? [5] ? ?? ??? ???? ???????? ? ????? ???? ??? ??? ???? ?? ??????? ? [2] [6] [7] [8] ?? ????? 7 ???? ?? ???? ?? ???? ??? ???? Alexa . [9]

???? ???????? ( / ? ? ?????? ? ? ???? ? ?? ? ??. ? / ?? / ? ??? ? ? ?? ???? ? ?? ? ??. ? / WIK - ?? - ?? ??? ?????? - ? - ) ??? ????? ????? ?? ???? [10 ] ??? ? ?? ???? ?? ???? (?? ???? ??? ????? ???? ????? ?? ???? ?? ? ?? ?????? ???? ???? ? ?? ????? "????") ? pedia encyclo .

????? ????? ???????? ?? ??? ??????? ?????????? ? ?????? ????? ? ???????? ??????? ?? ?? ???? ?? ?? ???? ??????? ? ??????? (?? ???? ??? ????? ???? ??? ?? ????? ???? ) ? [11] ? ???? ?? ?? ?? ?? ??? ????? ?? ?????? ?? ?????? ?????? ?? . [12] ?? ? ?????? ??????? ? ??? ??? ??? ???? ?????. [13] ?????? ???? ???? ?? ?????? ??? ?? ?? ???????? ? ????? ?? ??? ?? ??????? ???? ? ?? ????? ???? ? [14] ?? ??? ?? ??? ??? ???? ???? ?? ??? ?? ???????? ????? ????? ??? ? [15] [16] ? ????? ?? ????? ???? ?? ?? ?????? ?? ???? ???? ??? ????? ?? ??? ??? ? ??? ???????? ????????? ??? ? ??? ?????? ?? "?????? ??? ???." [17]

???? ?? ???????? ??? ??????? ???? ?? ???? ???????? ??????? ? ???? ????? ?? ?????? unacademic ??? ??? ????? ??? ????? ???. ???? ?? ???? ?? ????? ?????? ???? ??? ?? ????? ?? ??? ??? ?? ??? 2006 ? ????? ?? ?????? ???? ?? ?????? ? ????? ?????? ???? ?????? ?? ????? ?? ????? ???? ? ?? ?? ?? ??? ???????? ?? ????? ??? ?? ??? ????? ?? 2.0 ????? ? ????? ?? ?????? ? ??? ????? ? ? ??? ??? . [18] ????? ??? ???? ?? ???? ????? ???????? ?????????? ?? ???? ?? ????? ???? ???? ?? ????? ?? ??? ??? ?? ????? ???? ????? ?? ???? ???? ????? ??? ???? ?? ???? ?????. [19] [20] ???? ?????? ?????? ???? ??? ??? ???? ????? ???????? ???????? ?? ????? ???? ?? ????? ? ???? ???? ????? ?????? ???? ?? ?? ??????? uninitiated. [21]

???????

?????

???? ?????? "Nupedia.com ???????? ????" ?? ??? ??? ???? ????? "?"
?? ????? ???????? ? ???????? ???? ????? ?? ????? Nupedia .

???????? ???? ?? ????? ????? ???? ???? Nupedia ? ?????? ?? ???? ??????? ????? ???????? ????? ?? ?????? ????? ??? ???? ????????? ??? ????? ? ?????? ????. Nupedia ??? ? ????? ?? 2000 ???? 9 ??? ?????? Bomis ? ???? ? ?? ?????? ???? ?? ????. ???? ??? ???? ?? ????? ???? ??? ? Bomis ???? ???? ???? ? ? ??? ????? ? ?????? ???? ???? Nupedia ? ????? ????????. Nupedia ???? ??????? ???? ??? ??? ? ??? ?????? ?? ????? ??? ?? Nupedia ??? ? ????? ???? ??????? ???? ??? ?? ??? ?? ??????????? ???????? ?? ????? ?? ?????? ??????? . [22]

???? ???? ???????? ???????

??? ????? ? ???? ??? ????? ???????? ??? ????. [23] [24] ?? ???? ?? ???? ??? ???????? ?????? ?? ????? ??? ?? ???? ???? ?????? ????? ? [25] [26] ????? ?????? ?????? ?? ???????? ??????? ?? ???? ???? ????? ?? ??? ??? . [27] ?? ????? 10 ?????? 2001 ? ??? ????? Nupedia ??????? ?? ???? ???? ???? ????? ?? ???? ?? ????? ???? "" ????? Nupedia. [28] ???????? ??? ?? ??? ???? ??? ?????? ?? ?? 2001 ?????? 15 ?? ????? ???? ???? ??????? ?????? ?? www.wikipedia.com ? [29] ? ????? ????? ??? ?? ????? ?? ???? Nupedia. [25] ????? ???????? ?? "?? ??? ?? ???? ??? ?" [30] ??? ??? ????? ??? ?? ?? ???? ? ???? ????? ??? ? ?? Nupedia 's ????? "nonbiased" ?????. ?? ??? ??? ???? ? ?????? ???? ???? ????? ??? ?? ????? ? ???????? ??? ????? ?? Nupedia. [25]

?????? ????? ?????? ? ????? ?????? ???? ???? ????? ????? ?? ????? ?? ?? ??? ?? ????? ??? 2006 ? ????? ??? ?? ?? ??? ?? ??? 2007 ?????? ???.
?????? ????? ?? ????? ???? ????????? ??????? ? ?? 2001 ?????? 10 ? ?? 2007 ??????? 9 (????? - 2 ?????? ?????).

?? ???????? ? ??? ?? ??? ???? ??????? ?? Nupedia ????? ???? ????? ????? ???? ? ?? ???? ???????? ????? ????? ????. ?? ?? ???? 20000 ????? ? ???? ??? 18 ???? ?? ????? ??? 2001 ??? ???. ?? ????? ??? 2002 ? ??? ???? ???? ?? ?? ??? 26 ????? ??? ? 46 ?? ????? ??? 2003 ? ? 161 ???? ?????? ??? ??? 2004. [31] Nupedia ? ???????? coexisted ?? ????? ?? ???? ????? ???? ???? 2003 ?? ????? ?? ???? ???? ? ?? ??? ?? ???????? ??? ?? ???????? ??? ????. ???????? ??????? 9 2 ?????? ??? ???? ? ????? ????? ?? ????? ??????? 2007 ? ? ?? ?? ???????? ???????? ?????? ?? ???? ? ??? eclipsing ???????? Yongle (1407) ? ?? 600 ??? ?? ??? ?????? ????? ?? ???? ??? ?????. [32]

?? ????? ?? ??? ??????? ????? ? ??? ????? ?? ??? ???? ???????? ??????? ? ??????? ???????? ????????? ???? ?? ???????? ????? ?????? Enciclopedia ?? ????? 2002 [33] ????? ?? ???? ??? ? ??? ????? ??? ?? ???????? ?? ??????? ?? ????? ??? ? ?? ?? ???? ??? ?? ?? wikipedia.org ??? ??? ???? ???. [34] ????? ????? ??? ???? ???? ? ???????? ???? ??? ??? ? ???? ??? ?? ?? ????? ??? ????? ?????? ??? ? NPOV ??? ?????? ???????? ??? ????. Wikinfo ????? ???? ?????? ????? ? ????? ?? ??? ?? ???? ?????. ???????? ???? ????? ????? ?? ????? -- ????? ???????? ? Scholarpedia ? ???????? ? ? ???? ??? [35] -- ??? ??? ???? ?? ???? ??? ??????? ?? ???????? ? ????? ????? ??? ??? ?? ?? ????? ????? ? ?????? ? ????? ? ???????? .

????? ??????? ?? ???????? ??????? ??? ???? Gompertz ???? ?????? ?? 4.4 ?????? ?????.

???? ???????? ??????? 2009 ???? 3?000?000 ?????? ?? ??? ??? ? ??? ?? ???? ? ?? ??? ????? ?????? ? ?? ??????? ? ?? ??? ????? ?? ?? ????? 2007 ?? ????? ??? ????. [36] ?? ????? 2007 ? ?? ???? 2200 ????? ????? ?? ?????? ?? ???????? ? ?? ??? 2009 ? ?? ?? ??? ????? 1300 ???. ??? ????? ?? ? ?? ?? ???? ???? ???? ??????? ??? ?????? ?? ??? ?? ???? ????? ?????? ????? ?? ????. [37] ?? ?? ?????????? ??? ?? ??? ?????? ???????? ???? ????? ?? ??? ?? ?????? ???????? (???) ???? ?? ???? ?? ?????? ?? ??? ???? ???????? ? ?????? "?????? ??? ?? ????? ??? ? ??? . " ? ??? ???? ??? ?? ?? ???? ????? ???? ?? ?? ??? ? ??? ????????????? ???? ? ??? ?? ??? ?????? ?? ???? ?? ???? ?? ???? ????? ???. ???? ?? ????? ????? ?? ???? ?? ?? ??? ???? ???? ? ?????? ????? ????? ??? ? ?? ??? ???? ???? ????? ? ? ??????? ?? ?? ??? ????? ??? ??? flattening. [38] [39]

?? ?????? 2009 ? ????? ???? Ph.D ????? ??? ???? ????? ?????? ? ??????? ?? Universidad ?? ???? ?????? ?? ?????? ? ???? ??? ?? ????????? ??????? ?? 2009 ?? ?? ??? ?? ??? ???? 49?000 ?????????? ?? ??? 3 ??? ??? ? ?? ?????? ? ???? ????? ?? ??? ???? 4?900 ?????????? ?? ??? ??? ????? ?? ??? 2008. [40] [41] ??? ?????? ?????? ????? ??? ?? "????? ?? ????? ?? ?? ?????? ?? ??? ?? ???????? ???? ????? ?? ????? ? ?????? ? ???? [????????] ??? ?????." ?????? ?? ?? ?????? ? ????? ??? ?? ???????? ????? ?? ?????? ???? ????? ?? ???? ????? ???? ??? ???? ?? ????? ????? ??? ?? ?????. [42] ??? ???? ?????? ????? ???? ?????? ???? ???? ???? ? ?? ????? ???? ? ???? ?? ????????. [43]

????? ?? ????????

?? ??? ?????? ????

???? ????? ??????? v2.ogv
?? ????? 2009 ? ????? ???????? ????? ?????? ?????? ??????? ???????? ? ???? ?? ???? ??? ? ?????? ???????. [44]

?? ???? ?? ???? ???? ????? ??????? ???????? ?? ??????? ??? ? " ???? "??? ??????. ?? ?? ??? ???? ???? ???????? ????? ? ?? ????? ???? ??? ?????? ??? ???? ?????? ? ?? ?? ???? ?????? ? ?? ???? ?? ???? ??????? ??? ??? ??? ???? ??? ?? ????? ???? (??? ?? ???? ??????? ?????). ?? ????? ??? ? ????? ?? ??? ?? ?? ???? ?? ?? ???????? ???? ?? ???? ?????? vetted ?? ????? ?????? ??? ?? ???? ? ?????? ???? ?????????? ????? ?? ????? ????? ? ?? ????? ?? ????? . [45]

????? ?? ??? ? ?????? ?? ??????? ?? ???? ????? ?? ???? ? ????? ??? ???? ?? ????? ???????? ??? ?? ?? ????? ? ??? ???? ??? ???? ????? ??? ????? ? ?? ???? ????? ????? ? ? ?? ??? ????? ?? ?????? ???. ???? ?????? ?? ???????? ????? ?????? ?? ??? : ?? ??? ??? ??? ????? ??? "" ???? ?????? ??????? ? [46] ?? ??????? ????? ?? ??? ???? ???? ???? ?? ?????? ?? ???? ????? ???. ???? ??????? ?? ???????? ??? ?????? ??? ????? ???. [47] [48] ?? ??? ???? ??? 2010 ? ?? ?? ?? ????? ???? ????? ?? ?? ??????? (??? ????? ???????? ?????? ??????? ??? ????????? ?? "" ? ?? ???????? ?????? ????? ?????? ???? ????? ??? ? ????? ?????? ? ?? ???? ??? ?? ). ?? ??? ??????? ???? ?????? ? ?? ????? ??? ???? ? ???? ????? ???? ?? ????? ???? "? ?? ???' ?? ?????? ????? "?? ? ???? ???? ??? ??? ?????? ???????? ???? ? ???? ????? ???? ???????? ??????? "?? ??? ???? ?????? ???? ?????? ??? ??? ?? ?????? ??? ??? ?? ???? ????? ??? ???? ??? ???. " ??????? "??????" ????? ??? ?? ????? 15 ???? ? ????? ????? ?? ?? ???? 11:00. ??????? ?? ?????? ???? ??? ?? ??? ???? "?? ????? ????? ?? ???????? ????? ???????? ??? ?? ??????". ??? ????? ?????? ?? ????? ???????? ??? ?????? ???? ?? ????? ???????? ????? ????????? ??? ?? ?? ???? ????? ???? ? ??? ?? ?? ?? ????? "?? ???? ? ?? ?????." ?? ????? ?? ?????? ?? ???????? ????? ?? "???? ?? ??????? ????? ?? ????? ????? ? ? ?? ????? ???? ?? ?? ??? ????? ?? ??? ???????? ??? ????? ??? ???." [49]

???? ??? ???? ?? ???? ?? ????? ???? ??? ?????? ?? ????? ?? ?????? ????? ???????? ????? ????????.
?????????? ?????? ??????? ?? ?????? ?? ?? ???? ????? ??? 2 ????? ?? ???? ? ???? ????? ???? ??? ?? ?????.

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

???? ?? ?????? ???????? ??? ????.

?????? ?? ???????? ????? ?? ?????? ?? ?? ??? ?? ???? ?? ?????? : ????? ????? ? ????? ? ??? ?????? ???? ???? ??????. ????? ????? ???? ???? ?? ?????? ?? ??? "?????? ?????" ????? : ???????? ????? ????? ???? ?????? ?? ????? ???????? ?????? ?? ???? ???? ??. [53] [54] ??????? Giacomo Poderi ????? ?? ?? ?????? ?????? ???? ????? ?? ????? ???????? ?????? ?? ???? ??? ?????? ??? ????? ????? ?? ?????????? ???. ?? ??? 2007 ? ?? ????? ????? ???? ???? ????? ???? ???? ? ?? ???? ??????? ???????? ????? ????? ??????? ?? ?? ????? ????? ?????? ?? ??? ????? ??? ? [55] ???? ??? ???? ??? ?? ????? ???? ??? [ ????? ???? ]

????????? ???? ???? ????? ?? ?????????? ?? ?????? ??? ?? ??? ?? ????? ??? ?? ????. ??? ? ????? ????? ???? ?? ????? ?? ???? ???? ??????? ?? ????? ??????? ???????? ?? ?? ?? ????? ?????. ???????? ??? ??? ??????? ??? ?? ??? ???????? MoS ?? ?? ?????? ? ?? ????? ?? ????? ???? ? ?? ?? ???? ??? ?? ????? ???? ?? ??? ? ????? ????? ? ??? ????? ??????? ???? ??????? ???? ??.

????? ? ?????? ???? ?? ?????

??? ?? ????? ?????? ? ????? ?? ???????? ???? ?? ?????? (?? ???? ????? ??? ???? ) ?? ??????? ? ?? ?? ?? ??????? ???????? ????? ??????? ??? ??? ????? ?? ?? ? ???? ??????? ???????????? ????? "????? ?? ???? 5 "? ? ????? ????? ?? ??? ?? ? ?????????? ?? ?? ??? ????? ??? ???? ??? ???? ?? ?????? ?????. ??? ??? ?????? ?? ???? ????? ??? ?? ???? ? ? ?????????? ???????? ?? ????? ?? ????? ?? ?????? ? ????? ?? ??????? ? ???????? [56] ? ????? ???? ?? ?? ??? ? annotating ?? ????? ? ?? ????? ????? ????? ?????? ?? ???? ????? ????? ???. ?????? ????? ?? ???? ??? ??? ??????? ?? ???????? ????? ????? ?? ?? ?????? ????? ?? ????????? ??????? ? ?? diverged ?? ???. ?? ???? ?? ???? ???? ?? ???? ?? ??? ????? ??? ??? ?? ? ???? ?? ?????? ?? ?????? ?????? ???.

?? ???? ?? ?????? ????? ?? ????????? ??????? ? ?? ????? ?? ???????? ?? ???? ??????? ????? ??? ?? ???? ?????? ?? ?????????? ??? ? ?? ?? ????? ??? ???? ? ?? ????? ????. [57] ????? ??? ???? ??????? ???????????? ???????? "?? ??????? " [58] ?? ?????? ???? ???? ??? ?? ???? ????? ???? ?? ?????? ???? ?????? ?? ????? ????? ????? ????? ???? ????? ?? ? ?? ????? ???? ???? ?? ????? ?? ?????. ????? ?? ??? ? ???? ?? ????????. ???? ???? ??? ?? ?? ??? ???? ????? ? ?? ????? ?????? ??? [59] ?? ????? ???? ? ????? ???? ? ?? ????? ???? ? ??????? ???? ? ?? ??? ???? ???. ???? ?? ???? ?? ?? ?????? ???? ?? ????? ???? ?? ????? ?? ?? ???? ???? ??????. ?? ???? ?????????? ???????? ??? ??? ?? ???? ?? ????? ?????????? phrased "? ????? ????" ?? ?? ???? ??? ????? ?? ????????? ? ??? ???????? ????? ? ?? ????? ????? ?? ???? ????? ?? ?????? ? ???????? ??? ?? ????. [60] ?? ????? ? ???? ???????? ?? ??? ?????. [61] ??? ????? ? ????? ? ??? ???? ?? ????? ????? ? ???? ?? ????? ????? ??? ???? ?? ??? ???? ????. [62] ??? ??? NPOV ?? ??? ?????? ??? ?? ????? ???? ??? ? ??.

???????? ?? ?? ?????? ?? ??? ??? ?? ? ??? ???????. ??????? "? ????????? ? ???" ???? ???? ????? ????? ?? ???? ? ?? ?? ?? ????? ?? ?????? ? ????? ????? ????? ??? ? ? ??? ??? ?? ???? ??? ????? ??? ??? ???. ?? ????? ?? ??? ????? ????? ?????? ?? ????? ? ????? ?? ?? ???? ?? ??? ?? ? ? ?? ??????? ???? ??? ???? ?? ??? ?????? ????? ??????? ???? ??. "Wikiquette ????? ? ??????" noticeboard ??? ????? ??? ?? ?? ?? ??????? ?? ?????? ????? ?? ??? ? ?? ????? ? ? ?? ???? ???? ???????? ?? ?????????? ???? ???.

????? ??? ?????. ???? ????? ???? ???? ????? ?? ????? ???? ??? ???? ? ????? ?? ?? ????? ???? ??? ??? ????????? ???? ????? ??????? ?? ??? ? ??? ?? ?? ??? ??? ???? ?? ??????? ?????? ??? ?? ??? ?????? ???? ?? ? ??? ???????? ?? ???? ????. ???????? ????? ????? settles ???????? ????? ?? ??? ??? ???? ???? ?????. ArbCom ?? ??? ??? ??? ?? ??? ????? ?? ?????? ????? ????? ???? ? ??? ?? ???? ????? ?? ?? ???? "???? ???? ?? ?? ?????" ?????. ????? ? ????? ????? ???? ?? ??? ?? ?? ?????? ???????? ?????? ?????? ???????? ????? ? ?? ????? ????? ?? ??? ?? ? ?????? ????? ?? ?? ? ??? ??????? ? ????? ??? ???? ??????? ?????? ??? ? ??? ?? ??? ??? ?? ??????? ???? ??? ?? ???? ?? ???? ?????? ??????? ???? ??? ?? ?????? ????? ?????. ????? ?? ???? ?????? ???? ?? ????? ?? ???????? ? ???????? (???? ??????? ?? 15.7 ? ?????) ? ??? ?? ????? (23.4 ?) ? ??????? ???? (43.3 ????) ? ????? ? probations (63.2 ?). ??????? ?? ?? ???????? ? ????? ????? ?? ?????? ?? ??? ???? ?? ??????? ????? . ????? ?? ???????? ??????? ???? ?? ??? ???? ????? ?????? ? ????? ??? ?? ?? ????? ? ? ?? ??. [63]

???? ?? ????? ??????? ???? ???

????? ??? ?? ??? ?????? ??? ??? ?? ????? ???? ?????? ?? ???????? ??? ????. ???? ???? ? ??????? ?? ?? ????? ??? ????? ????? ???? ?? ???? ?? ?? ?? ??? ??????? ?????? ? ?? ??? ??????? ????? ????? ??? ?? ??? ??????. ???????? ????????? ?????? ???? ???? ????? McHenry ?? ??? ??? : ??? ????? ??? ???? : [64]

????? ?????? ??? ??? ?? ???????? ?? ???? ???? ?? ????? ??????? ? ???? ????? ???? ?? ????? ??? ??? ??? ? ? ?? ?? ?????? ?????? ????? ?? ????? ??????? ????? ??. ??? ???? ??? ?? ???? ???? ? ?? ???? ?? ?? ?? ???? ????? ?????? ??? ???? ? ?? ?? ?? ???? ??? ?? ??? ?? ??? ????? ???? ? ?? ???? ?? ?? ???? ??? ?? ?? ????? ???? lulled. ??? ???? ?? ?? ???? ??? ???? ??? ??? ?? ?? ??????? ??? ?? ?? ??????? ?? ???. ???????? [????????] ?????. [65]
???? ?? ????? ??? ???????? ?? ??? ?? ? ????? ? ?????? ?? ???? ?? ??? ??????.
??? Seigenthaler ?? ?? ????? ????? ???? ???????? ?? ????? "??? ???????? ? ????? ????." [66]

???????? ????? ??? ???? ?? ??? ?? ?????? ???? ? ?? ???? ??? ???? ?? ?? ????? ??? ????? ??? ???. ?? ??? ? ???? ????? ???? ??????? ? ????? vandalisms ????? ????? ??? ? ?? ?????? ??? ????? ? [15] [16] ??? ?? ???? 1 ?? ???? ?? ????? ???? ????? ? ??????? ?????? ??? ??? ????? ?? ???????? ????? ?????? ??? Seigenthaler ? ???? ????? ??????? ?? ??? ???? ??? ?? ????. [66] ??? Seigenthaler ? ???? ??????? ????? ????? ?????? ????? ?????? ? ???? ????? ????? ???? ??????? ??? ?? ??????? ???????? ? ?? ??? ???? ???? ? ????? ?? ??? ???? ?? ??? ?? ??? ??? ?? ?????? ?? ??? ??????? ???. ???? ???? ??? ?? ?? ? ?? ??? ?? ??? ??? ????? ????? ?? ???? ????? ?? ? ???????. [67] [68] ??? ????? ??? ???? ?? ????? ????? ?? ???? ? ?? ?????? ?? ???? ??? ???? ???? ?????????? ?????? ?????? ???? ????? ?? ???? .

??? ???? ?????? 's???????? ???? ???? ???? ??? ??????? trolls ? ???? ????? ? ???? ? ? ????? ?? ?? ????? ??? ?? ?? ???. [50] [69] ????? ?? ??? ?? ????? ???? ?? ?????? ???? ?????? ?? ???? ????? ???? ????????? ?????? ????? ? ???? ??? ????? ??? [14] ??? ??? ?? ????? ?? ? [70] ? ?????? ???? ????? ?????????? ?? ????? ???? ??? ???? ??? ???? ???? ??? ?? ??? ?????? ???. [71] ??? ????? ???? ??? ? ?? ???? parodied ???? ?????? Colbert ?? ????? Colbert . [72]

?? ????? ???? ? ?? ??? ??? ??? 2007 ? ?? ???? WikiScanner ???? ?? ?????? ????? ???? ??????? ???? ???????? ????? ??? ???? ?????????? ???????? ?? ???? ??????. ?????? ???? ??? ?? ?????? ?? ???? ?? ?? ???? ??? ???? ??? ?? ???? ?????? ??? ????? ?? ???? ??? ???? ?? ??? ????? ?????? ?????? ?????? ? ??????? ??? ? ?? ??? ???. [73]

?? ??? ? ???????? ?? ???? ????? ??? ????? ? ????? ??? ???? ???. ??? ???? ????? ? ?? ???? ??????? ???? ??? ? ?????? ??? ????????? ('??????') ??? ?? ?? ??? ????? ??? ?? ???? ???? ??????? ????? ? ?? ???? ?? ?? ???? ???????? ?? ???? ????????) ? ????? ?? ???? ?? ????? ???? ??????? ???? ??? ??????? ? [74] ???? ?? ???? ?? ???? ?? ?? ?? ???? ??? ??? ? ???? ?? ????????? ?? ???? ??? ? ???? ?? ?? ?? ???? ?????.

???? ???? ?? ??? ????? ? ?????? ??? ?? ?? ???? ???? ????? ??? ?? ???? ?? ??? ?? ????? ?? ???? ????? ???? ? ?????? ???? [75] ?? ???? ???? ????? ?? ???? ? ??? ??? ??? ?? ???? ?? ???? ?????? ?? ?? ????? ????. [76] ??? ???? ???? ????? ?? ??? sparingly ? ?????? ??? ???? ??? ???? ?????? ?? ???? ?? ?? ?????? ???? ?? ??? ?? ??? ????? ????? ????? ???.

???? ?? ???????

20 ???? ???? ?????? ?? ???????? ???? 2009 [77]
1. ????
2. ?????
3. ????? ?????
4. Favicon
5. ??????
6. ????????
7. ????? ??????
8. ??? ? ??? ?? ??? 2009
9. ?????? ?????
10. ??? ???
11. ????? ????? ??????
12. ??? ??? ?????
13. ??????
14. ?????????
15. ??????? ????????
16. Lil ???
17. ????? ?????
18. ????????
19. ????????????? 2
20. Scrubs

???????? ?? ????? ????? ?? ????? ?? ?? ???? ???? ???? ?? ?? ??? ?? ???????? ?????? ????. ?? ???? ?? ?? ?? ?? ???? ??????? ???? ???? ?? ????? ????? ????????? ??? ?? ????? ????? ?? ????? ?? ????? ??? ??? ??? ???? ????? ?? ????. [78] ?????? ???? ????? ?? ???? ????? ? ?? ???? ?????????? ???????? ? [79] ???? ??? ?????? ? ????? ???? ? ? ?? ?????. [80] ?? ???? ????? ??? ??? ?? ??? ????? ??? ?? ???? ??? ? ????? ???? ???? ???? ??? ???. ?? ????? ???? ? ?? ??? 2008 ? ???????? ?? ?? ???????? ???? ?????? ??????? ?? ????????? ???? ?? ?? ???? ??????? ? ?? ?????? ?? ??? ?????. ???? ???? ???? ????? ?? ???????? ???? ??? ??? ??? ?? ?????? ??? ??? ?? ???? ?????? ?? ???? ??? ????. [81] (?????? ?????? : ???? IWF ?? ???????? )

??????? ?? ?? ??????? 2009 ? ????? ???????? ??? ???? ???? ???? ?? ????? ?????? ??? ?? ??? ????. ?? ??? ??? ? ??????? ????? ??? ???? ????? ??????? ??????? ???? ???? ??? ?? ????? ????????? ?????? ????? ??????? ???. ???? ?????? ????? ??? ?????? ???? ?????? ? ????? ? ??? ???? ?? ???? ????? ??? ?? ?????? ????? ?? ???? ?? ??? ????? ? ?? ???? ?????? ?? ?????? ???. [82]

?????? ??? ?????? ???????? ?? ??? ????? ?? ?????? 2008. [83]

2008 ?????? ????? ??? ???? ?????? ?? ??????? ?????? ???? ? ? ???? ???? ???? ??????? ??? ????? ?? ??????? ? ?????? ??? (?? ????? 2006 ?? ?????? 2008) ?? ?? ???? : [83]

?? ??? ??? ? ???? ???? ???? ?? ???????? ??? ????? ????? ???? ???????? ? ???????? ????? ??? ????? ???? (?????? ???? ???? ?? deletionism ? inclusionism ). [84] [85]

?????

?? ???? ?? ?????? ??????? ???????? ??? ??? ????? ?? ???? ?? ??? ????? ???? ??? ????? ? ???? ? ????? ?? ????? ????? ???? ??? ?? ???? ?? ???. ??????? ??????? ?? ???? ?? ???? ????? ??? ????? ?????? ????? ?? ??? ?????. ?? ????? ???? ? ???? ??? Rosenzweig ???? ??? ?? : "?? ??? ??? ? ????? ??? '????? ???? ?? ???????? ????? ?? ?? ???? ? ????? ? ? ???? ???????? ???? ?? ????? ????? ?????? ?? ????? : ?? ?? ????? ?????? ????? ?????? ?? ?? ?? ???? ?? ???????? ????? ??? ???? ???? ????? ???. " [86]

?????? ???????

?? ????? ?? ????? ?? ?????? ??? ? ???????? "?? ???? ??? ?????? ??????" ?? ?????? ?? ? ?? ??? ?? ?? ????? ????? ?????? ???? ?? ???? ??? ?? ?? ???. [87] ?????? ??? ??? ? ???? ??? ?? ???? ??? ???????? ?? ????? ?? ??????? ?????? ????? ? [88] ??? ??????? ?? ???? ? [89] ???????? ? ? ?????? ?????.

???????? ???? ??? ??????? ???????? ???? ?? ???????? ??????? ? ????? ? [13] ????? ?? ??? ? ??????? ??????? ?? ???? ?? ??? ????? ???????? ? ??? ???? ????? ????? ?? ???? ?????? ?? ??????? ???? ?? ??????? ???. [90] ???? ?? ?????? ??????? ?? ???????? ?? ??? ??? ???? ??????? ??? ? ??? ?? ?????? ?? ????? ???? ??? ??? ?? ????? ???? ???. [12] ?????????? ???? ???? ???? ????? ????? ??????? ????????? ????? ???????? ????? ???? ????? ? ?????? ?? ?????. [91] ?????? ?? ??????? ??????? ????? ???? ????????? ?? ?????? ?? ?? ???????? ?? ???????? ??? ? ????? ?? ???? ????? ????? ? [92] ???? ?? ?????? ?????? ????? ???????? ??? ????. [93] ???? ?? ???? ??? ????? ?? ??? ?? ????? ????????? ?? ??? ????? ????? ????? ???? ?????? ?? ????? ????? ???? ? ?? ???? ?? ????? ????? ????. [94]

?? ??? ??? ? ??????? ????? ??? ?? ???? ????? ?? ??? 2005 ??????? ??? ?? ?????? ???? ???? ???????? ??? ????? ?? ??? ??? ? ??? ???????? ????????? ??? ? ??? ?????? ?? "?????? ??? ???." [17] ??? ???? ??? ???? ???????? ????????? ??? ???????. [95] [96]

????????? Cowen ????? ?? ????? : "??? ?? ??? ?? ??? ??? ?? ?? ??? ?? ???????? ? ?? ????? ????? ?????? ????? ?? ?????? ??? ?? ?????? ???? ???? ???? ? ?? ?? ?? ????? ???? ??? ?? ??? ?? ?? ???????? ???? ?????? ????". ????? ?? ?? ?????? ?? ????? ???? ??? ??????? ?? ?????? ??????? ??? ?? ????. ????? ???? ????? ??? ?? ?? ????? ??? ?? ?????? ????? ? ? ??????? ?????? ?? ?? ????? ??? ???? ??? ???. ?? ??? ??? ?? ?????? ????? ??? ?? ???????? ????? ?? ???? ??? ???????? ???? ? ? ?????????? ? ????????? ???? ????? ????? ?? ????? ????. [97]

?? ????? 2007 ? ????? ?? ?? ??????? ??????? ??????? ??????? ????? ??? ?? ???? ?? ??????? ?? ??????? ??????? ??????? ?? ???????? ?? ???? ???? ???? ???? ?????? ??? ? ??? ???????? ???? ???? ?? ????? ???? ?? ??? ?? ??????? ??. [98] ?? ??? ???? ??? 2007 ? ???? ????? ???? ????? ???????? ??? ?????? ????? ????? ????? ???????? ? ????? ?? ???? ? [99] ???? ??? ?? ?????????? ?? ????? ??????? ?? ???????? ????? "????? ???? ????? ????? ?? ?? ???? ????? ????? ?? ??????? ?? ???? ??????? ?? ??? ???. " ?? ?????? ??? ?? "??? sluggards ???? ?????? ?? ???? ????? ?? ???????" ?? ?? ??????? ????? ??? ???. ?? ????? ?? ??? ?? ????? ????? ?? ?? ????? ??? ???? ?????? ?? ??? ????? ?? ???? ????? ??? ?? ????? ?? ??? ?? ??? ???? ?????? ?????? ? ?? ?? ?? ???? ??? ?????? ??? ??. ?? ??? ????? ???? ??? ???? (??????? ?? ??????? ??????? ????? ) ????? ??? ?? ?? ?????????? ?? ?????? ???????? ? ????? ???? ?? : "??? ??? ?????? ?? ????? ?????? ???? ???? ???? ???? ?? ??????? ?? ??????? ????? ?? ?????????? ?? ??????? ?? ???????? ????? ?? ????? ???. ????? ??? ??? ?? ???? ????? ?????? ?? ???? ???? ?? ??? ??? ? ????? ??? ??????? ?? ????? ??? ?????? ???? ??? : ?????? ??????? ?? ??????? ?? ??? ????? ? ????? ???. " [99]

?????

????????? ? ??????? ?????? ???? ??????? ???????? ? ???????? ???? ?? ???? ????? ????????.

????? ???????? ????? ???? ??? "????????? ?? ?????" ?? ???? "?????? ???? ???? ??? ?? ?? ?????? ?????? ???? ????? ????? ???????". [100] [101] [102] ?? ????? ???????? ??? ???? ??? "????? ??? ?? ????? ???? ????? ? " ] [103 ??? ?? ????? ?? ????? ????? ???? ??? ? [104] ?????? ? ??????? ?? ????? ?? ???? ??? ??????. [105] ?? ??????? ?????????? ??? ?? ????? ?? ????? ????? ???? ???? ?????? ?? ???? 1 ?????? ? ??? ???? ??? ?? " ???? ???? ? " [106] [107] ????? ?? ????? ????? ?? ??????? ?? ????? ??? ? ??? ???? ?????? ?? ?? ???????? ?? ???? ????? ?????? ? ?? ???????? ? ???? ??????? ?? ??????. ?? ???? ??? ? ??? ???????? ? ?????? ??? ?????? ???? ?? ?? ????? ???? ???????? ?????? ? ?? ??? ???? ????? ?? ????? ???? ???? ??? ?? ????? ????? ?? ??? ? ?? ??? ????? ????? disallowed ?? ???????? ???? ? ??????? ?? ????? ???? ??? ???? ??? (????? ????????) . [108] [109]

????? ????? ?? ?????????? ???????? ??? ????.

??????? ?? ??? ?? ??? ???????? ?? ?? ??? ??? ??? ?????? ?? ???????? ??????? ? "?? ??? ?? ????? ???????? ????" ????? ?? ??? ?? ?????? ???? ?? ????? ? ???? ?? ????? ?? ???? ????? ??? ?? 2.0 ????? ?????? . [110] ???? ??? ????? ??????? ?? ???? ?? ??? "?????... ???? ?????? ???? ??? ?? ??? ?? ??????" ?? ???? ??? ???? ?? ?? ????????? ??? ?? ???????? ? ????? ???????? "???? ??????? ?? ?????? ??? ????". ??? ????? ?????? ????? ?? ??? ?? 50 ? ?? ???? ????????? ????? ? ???? ?? 0.7 ???? ?? ??????? (?? ???? ??? : 524 ??? ????? ??). ??? ??? ??????? ??? ???? ?????? ??? ??? ????? ?????? ? ?? ????? ??? ?? ?? ????? ????? ????? ?? ??? ??? ??? ????? ?? ?????? ???? (?????????? ??? ?? ????? ???????) ?? ???? ?? ???? ??????? ?????? ????? ?? ?????. [111] ?????? ?? ??? 2007 ???? ?????? ?? ??????? ???? ????? ?? ?? "?????? ? ??... ??????? ?? ???????? ?? ????? ???? ???? ?????? ?? ???? ?? ????? ????? ?? ??????? ???? ??? ??? ????." [112] ??? ?? ???? ?? ??????? ????? ?????? ?? ??? ????? ??? ? ?????? ?? ??? ?? ??? ???????? ??? ??? ??? ???????? ?? ??? ????? ????? ??? ? ???? ?????. ????? ?????? ???? ????? ?? ?????? ??? ??? ????? " ?? elitism . " [11]

?? ?? ?????? ?? ??? 2003 ???????? ?? ????? ?? ????? ? ?????? ????? ?????? ?????? Ciffolilli ??????? ?? ???? ?? ?? ????? ?????? ???? ?? ???? ??? ????? ????? ?? ????????? ???? ????? ????? ? ???? ?? ???? ? ??? "" ?????? ?????? ?? ????? ?? ???. [113] In his 2008 book, The Future of the Internet and How to Stop It , Jonathan Zittrain of the Oxford Internet Institute and Harvard Law School's Berkman Center for Internet & Society cites Wikipedia's success as a case study in how open collaboration has fostered innovation on the web . [ 114 ] A 2008 study found that Wikipedia users were less agreeable and open, though more conscientious, than non-Wikipedia users. [ 115 ] [ 116 ] A 2009 study suggested there was "evidence of growing resistance from the Wikipedia community to new content." [ 117 ]

At OOPSLA 2009, Wikimedia CTO and Senior Software Architect Brion Vibber gave a presentation entitled "Community Performance Optimization: Making Your People Run as Smoothly as Your Site" [ 118 ] in which he discussed the challenges of handling the contributions from a large community and compared the process to that of software development.

The Wikipedia Signpost is the community newspaper on the English Wikipedia , [ 119 ] and was founded by Michael Snow , an administrator and the former chair of the Wikimedia Foundation board of trustees. [ 120 ] It covers news and events from the site, as well as major events from sister projects, such as Wikimedia Commons . [ 121 ]

Notable users of Wikipedia include film critic Roger Ebert [ 122 ] [ 123 ] and University of Maryland physicist Robert L. Park . [ 124 ]

Wikipedians sometimes award one another barnstars for outstanding work. These personalized tokens of appreciation reveal a wide range of valued work extending far beyond simple editing to include social support, administrative actions, and types of articulation work. The barnstar phenomenon has been analyzed by researchers seeking to determine what implications it might have for other communities engaged in large-scale collaborations. [ 125 ]

60% of registered users never make another edit after their first 24 hours. Possible explanations are that such users only register for a single purpose, or are scared away by their experiences. [ 126 ] Goldman writes that editors who fail to comply with Wikipedia cultural rituals, such as signing talk pages, implicitly signal that they are Wikipedia outsiders, increasing the odds that Wikipedia insiders will target their contributions as a threat. Becoming a Wikipedia insider involves non-trivial costs; the contributor is expected to build a user page, learn Wikipedia-specific technological codes, submit to an arcane dispute resolution process, and learn a "baffling culture rich with in-jokes and insider references." Non-logged-in users are in some sense second-class citizens on Wikipedia, [ 127 ] as "participants are accredited by members of the wiki community, who have a vested interest in preserving the quality of the work product, on the basis of their ongoing participation," [ 128 ] but the contribution histories of IP addresses cannot necessarily with any certainty be credited to, or blamed upon, a particular user.

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Wikimedia Foundation and the Wikimedia chapters

Wikipedia is hosted and funded by the Wikimedia Foundation , a non-profit organization which also operates Wikipedia-related projects such as Wiktionary and Wikibooks . The Wikimedia chapters, local associations of users and supporters of the Wikimedia projects, also participate in the promotion, the development, and the funding of the project.

Software and hardware

The operation of Wikipedia depends on MediaWiki , a custom-made, free and open source wiki software platform written in PHP and built upon the MySQL database. [ 129 ] The software incorporates programming features such as a macro language , variables , a transclusion system for templates , and URL redirection . MediaWiki is licensed under the GNU General Public License and it is used by all Wikimedia projects, as well as many other wiki projects. Originally, Wikipedia ran on UseModWiki written in Perl by Clifford Adams (Phase I), which initially required CamelCase for article hyperlinks; the present double bracket style was incorporated later. Starting in January 2002 (Phase II), Wikipedia began running on a PHP wiki engine with a MySQL database; this software was custom-made for Wikipedia by Magnus Manske. The Phase II software was repeatedly modified to accommodate the exponentially increasing demand. In July 2002 (Phase III), Wikipedia shifted to the third-generation software, MediaWiki, originally written by Lee Daniel Crocker . Several MediaWiki extensions are installed [ 130 ] to extend the functionality of MediaWiki software. In April 2005 a Lucene extension [ 131 ] [ 132 ] was added to MediaWiki's built-in search and Wikipedia switched from MySQL to Lucene for searching. Currently Lucene Search 2.1, [ 133 ] which is written in Java and based on Lucene library 2.3, [ 134 ] is used.

Diagram showing flow of data between wikipedia's servers. Twenty database servers talk to hundreds of Apache servers in the backend; Apaches talk to fifty squids in the frontend.
Overview of system architecture, April 2009. See server layout diagrams on Meta-Wiki .

Wikipedia currently runs on dedicated clusters of Linux servers (mainly Ubuntu ), [ 135 ] [ 136 ] with a few OpenSolaris machines for ZFS . As of December 2009, there were 300 in Florida and 44 in Amsterdam . [ 137 ] Wikipedia employed a single server until 2004, when the server setup was expanded into a distributed multitier architecture . In January 2005, the project ran on 39 dedicated servers in Florida. This configuration included a single master database server running MySQL , multiple slave database servers, 21 web servers running the Apache HTTP Server , and seven Squid cache servers.

Wikipedia receives between 25,000 and 60,000 page requests per second, depending on time of day. [ 138 ] Page requests are first passed to a front-end layer of Squid caching servers. [ 139 ] Further statistics are available based on a publicly available 3-months Wikipedia access trace. [ 140 ] Requests that cannot be served from the Squid cache are sent to load-balancing servers running the Linux Virtual Server software, which in turn pass the request to one of the Apache web servers for page rendering from the database. The web servers deliver pages as requested, performing page rendering for all the language editions of Wikipedia. To increase speed further, rendered pages are cached in a distributed memory cache until invalidated, allowing page rendering to be skipped entirely for most common page accesses. Two larger clusters in the Netherlands and Korea now handle much of Wikipedia's traffic load.

Mobile access

Wikipedia's original medium was for users to read and edit content using any standard web browser through a fixed internet connection . However, Wikipedia content is now also accessible through the mobile web .

Access to Wikipedia from mobile phones was possible as early as 2004, through the Wireless Application Protocol (WAP), via the Wapedia service. In June 2007, Wikipedia launched en.mobile.wikipedia.org , an official website for wireless devices. In 2009 a newer mobile service was officially released, [ 141 ] located at en.m.wikipedia.org , which caters to more advanced mobile devices such as the iPhone , Android -based devices, or the Palm Pre . Several other methods of mobile access to Wikipedia have emerged (See Help:Mobile device ). Several devices and applications optimise or enhance the display of Wikipedia content for mobile devices, while some also incorporate additional features such as use of Wikipedia metadata (See Wikipedia:Metadata ), such as geoinformation . [ 142 ]

License and language editions

All text in Wikipedia was covered by GNU Free Documentation License (GFDL), a copyleft license permitting the redistribution, creation of derivative works, and commercial use of content while authors retain copyright of their work, [ 143 ] up until June 2009, when the site switched to Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike (CC-by-SA) 3.0. [ 144 ] Wikipedia had been working on the switch to Creative Commons licenses because the GFDL, initially designed for software manuals, is not suitable for online reference works and because the two licenses were incompatible. [ 145 ] In response to the Wikimedia Foundation's request, in November 2008, the Free Software Foundation (FSF) released a new version of GFDL designed specifically to allow Wikipedia to relicense its content to CC-BY-SA by August 1, 2009. Wikipedia and its sister projects held a community-wide referendum to decide whether or not to make the license switch. [ 146 ] The referendum took place from April 9 to 30. [ 147 ] The results were 75.8% "Yes," 10.5% "No," and 13.7% "No opinion." [ 148 ] In consequence of the referendum, the Wikimedia Board of Trustees voted to change to the Creative Commons license, effective June 15, 2009. [ 148 ] The position that Wikipedia is merely a hosting service has been successfully used as a defense in court. [ 149 ] [ 150 ]

Percentage of all Wikipedia articles in English (red) and top ten largest language editions (blue). As of July 2007, less than 23% of Wikipedia articles are in English.

The handling of media files (eg, image files) varies across language editions. Some language editions, such as the English Wikipedia, include non-free image files under fair use doctrine, while the others have opted not to. This is in part because of the difference in copyright laws between countries; for example, the notion of fair use does not exist in Japanese copyright law . Media files covered by free content licenses (eg, Creative Commons' cc-by-sa) are shared across language editions via Wikimedia Commons repository, a project operated by the Wikimedia Foundation.

There are currently 262 language editions of Wikipedia ; of these, 24 have over 100,000 articles and 81 have over 1,000 articles. [ 151 ] The largest, the English Wikipedia, has 3,357,204 articles. According to Alexa, the English subdomain (en.wikipedia.org; English Wikipedia ) receives approximately 54% of Wikipedia's cumulative traffic, with the remaining split among the other languages (Japanese: 10%, German: 8%, Spanish: 5%, Russian: 4%, French: 4%, Italian: 3%). [ 2 ] As of July 2008, the five largest language editions are (in order of article count) English , German , French , Polish , and Japanese Wikipedias . [ 152 ]

Since Wikipedia is web-based and therefore worldwide, contributors of a same language edition may use different dialects or may come from different countries (as is the case for the English edition ). These differences may lead to some conflicts over spelling differences , (eg color vs. colour ) [ 153 ] or points of view. [ 154 ] Though the various language editions are held to global policies such as "neutral point of view," they diverge on some points of policy and practice, most notably on whether images that are not licensed freely may be used under a claim of fair use . [ 155 ] [ 156 ] [ 157 ]

Pie chart with percentages of contributors by country: USA 52.1, UK 15.9, Canada 7.3, Austria 4.4, Germany 1.8, Netherlands 1.6, France 1, Others 15.8.
Contributors for English Wikipedia by country as of September 2006. [ 158 ]

Jimmy Wales has described Wikipedia as "an effort to create and distribute a free encyclopedia of the highest possible quality to every single person on the planet in their own language." [ 159 ] Though each language edition functions more or less independently, some efforts are made to supervise them all. They are coordinated in part by Meta-Wiki, the Wikimedia Foundation's wiki devoted to maintaining all of its projects (Wikipedia and others). [ 160 ] For instance, Meta-Wiki provides important statistics on all language editions of Wikipedia, [ 161 ] and it maintains a list of articles every Wikipedia should have. [ 162 ] The list concerns basic content by subject: biography, history, geography, society, culture, science, technology, foodstuffs, and mathematics. As for the rest, it is not rare for articles strongly related to a particular language not to have counterparts in another edition. For example, articles about small towns in the United States might only be available in English.

Translated articles represent only a small portion of articles in most editions, in part because automated translation of articles is disallowed. [ 163 ] Articles available in more than one language may offer " InterWiki " links, which link to the counterpart articles in other editions.

Reusing Wikipedia's content

Because Wikipedia content is distributed under an open license, anyone can re-distribute it at no charge. The content of Wikipedia has been published in many forms, both online and offline, outside of the Wikipedia website.

Thousands of " mirror sites " exist that republish content from Wikipedia; two notable ones, that also include content from other reference sources, are Reference.com and Answers.com . Another example is Wapedia , which began to display Wikipedia content in a mobile-device-friendly format before Wikipedia itself did.

Some search engines also display content from Wikipedia on search results: examples include Bing.com (via technology gained from Powerset ) [ 164 ] and Duck Duck Go .

Some wikis, most notably Enciclopedia Libre and Citizendium, began as forks of Wikipedia content.

The website DBpedia , begun in 2007, is a project that extracts data from the infoboxes and category declarations of the English-language Wikipedia and makes it available in a queriable semantic format, RDF . The possibility has also been raised to have Wikipedia export its data directly in a semantic format, possibly by using the Semantic MediaWiki extension. Such an export of data could also help Wikipedia reuse its own data, both between articles on the same language Wikipedia and between different language Wikipedias. [ 165 ]

Collections of Wikipedia articles have also been published on optical disks . An English version, 2006 Wikipedia CD Selection , contained about 2,000 articles. [ 166 ] [ 167 ] The Polish-language version contains nearly 240,000 articles. [ 168 ] There are also German-language versions. [ 169 ]

"Wikipedia for Schools", the Wikipedia series of CDs/DVDs, produced by Wikipedians and SOS Children , is a free, hand-checked, non-commercial selection from Wikipedia targeted around the UK National Curriculum and intended to be useful for much of the English speaking world. [ 170 ] The project is available online; an equivalent print encyclopedia would require roughly 20 volumes.

There has also been an attempt to put a select subset of Wikipedia's articles into printed book form. [ 171 ] [ 172 ]

Cultural significance

Graph showing the number of days between every 10,000,000th edit.
Wikipedia page on Atlantic Records being edited to read: "You suck!"
Wikipedia shown in Weird Al 's music video for his song " White & Nerdy ."

In addition to logistic growth in the number of its articles, [ 173 ] Wikipedia has steadily gained status as a general reference website since its inception in 2001. [ 174 ] According to Alexa and comScore , Wikipedia is among the ten most visited websites worldwide. [ 8 ] [ 175 ] Of the top ten, Wikipedia is the only non-profit website. The growth of Wikipedia has been fueled by its dominant position in Google search results; [ 176 ] about 50% of search engine traffic to Wikipedia comes from Google, [ 177 ] a good portion of which is related to academic research. [ 178 ] In April 2007 the Pew Internet and American Life project found that one third of US Internet users consulted Wikipedia. [ 179 ] In October 2006, the site was estimated to have a hypothetical market value of $580 million if it ran advertisements. [ 180 ]

Wikipedia's content has also been used in academic studies, books, conferences, and court cases. [ 181 ] [ 182 ] [ 183 ] The Parliament of Canada 's website refers to Wikipedia's article on same-sex marriage in the "related links" section of its "further reading" list for the Civil Marriage Act . [ 184 ] The encyclopedia's assertions are increasingly used as a source by organizations such as the US Federal Courts and the World Intellectual Property Organization [ 185 ] – though mainly for supporting information rather than information decisive to a case. [ 186 ] Content appearing on Wikipedia has also been cited as a source and referenced in some US intelligence agency reports. [ 187 ] In December 2008, the scientific journal RNA Biology launched a new section for descriptions of families of RNA molecules and requires authors who contribute to the section to also submit a draft article on the RNA family for publication in Wikipedia. [ 188 ]

The Onion newspaper front page.
The Onion satirical newspaper headline "Wikipedia Celebrates 750 Years Of American Independence."

Wikipedia has also been used as a source in journalism , [ 189 ] often without attribution, and several reporters have been dismissed for plagiarizing from Wikipedia. [ 190 ] [ 191 ] [ 192 ] In July 2007, Wikipedia was the focus of a 30-minute documentary on BBC Radio 4 [ 193 ] which argued that, with increased usage and awareness, the number of references to Wikipedia in popular culture is such that the term is one of a select band of 21st-century nouns that are so familiar ( Google , Facebook , YouTube ) that they no longer need explanation and are on a par with such 20th-century terms as Hoovering or Coca-Cola . Many parody Wikipedia's openness, with characters vandalizing or modifying the online encyclopedia project's articles. Notably, comedian Stephen Colbert has parodied or referenced Wikipedia on numerous episodes of his show The Colbert Report and coined the related term " wikiality ." [ 72 ]

On September 28, 2007, Italian politician Franco Grillini raised a parliamentary question with the Minister of Cultural Resources and Activities about the necessity of freedom of panorama . He said that the lack of such freedom forced Wikipedia, "the seventh most consulted website" to forbid all images of modern Italian buildings and art, and claimed this was hugely damaging to tourist revenues. [ 194 ]

Jimmy Wales receiving the Quadriga A Mission of Enlightenment award.

On September 16, 2007, The Washington Post reported that Wikipedia had become a focal point in the 2008 US election campaign , saying, "Type a candidate's name into Google, and among the first results is a Wikipedia page, making those entries arguably as important as any ad in defining a candidate. Already, the presidential entries are being edited, dissected and debated countless times each day." [ 195 ] An October 2007 Reuters article, titled "Wikipedia page the latest status symbol," reported the recent phenomenon of how having a Wikipedia article vindicates one's notability. [ 196 ]

Wikipedia won two major awards in May 2004. [ 197 ] The first was a Golden Nica for Digital Communities of the annual Prix Ars Electronica contest; this came with a €10,000 (£6,588; $12,700) grant and an invitation to present at the PAE Cyberarts Festival in Austria later that year. The second was a Judges' Webby Award for the "community" category. [ 198 ] Wikipedia was also nominated for a "Best Practices" Webby. On January 26, 2007, Wikipedia was also awarded the fourth highest brand ranking by the readers of brandchannel.com, receiving 15% of the votes in answer to the question "Which brand had the most impact on our lives in 2006?" [ 199 ]

In September 2008, Wikipedia received Quadriga A Mission of Enlightenment award of Werkstatt Deutschland along with Boris Tadi? , Eckart Höfling , and Peter Gabriel . The award was presented to Jimmy Wales by David Weinberger . [ 200 ]

Some media sources satirize Wikipedia's susceptibility to inserted inaccuracies. An example can be found in a front-page article in The Onion in July 2006, with the title "Wikipedia Celebrates 750 Years of American Independence." [ 201 ] Others draw upon Wikipedia's motto, such as in " The Negotiation ," an episode of The Office , where character Michael Scott says "Wikipedia is the best thing ever. Anyone in the world can write anything they want about any subject, so you know you are getting the best possible information." " My Number One Doctor ", a 2007 episode of the TV show Scrubs , also lampooned Wikipedia's reliance on editors who edit both scholarly and pop culture articles with a scene in which Dr. Perry Cox reacts to a patient who says that a Wikipedia article indicates that the raw food diet reverses the effects of bone cancer by retorting that the same editor who wrote that article also wrote the Battlestar Galactica episode guide . [ 202 ]

In July 2009, BBC Radio 4 broadcast a comedy series called Bigipedia , which was set on a website which was a parody of Wikipedia. Some of the sketches were directly inspired by Wikipedia and its articles. [ 203 ]

Related projects

A number of interactive multimedia encyclopedias incorporating entries written by the public existed long before Wikipedia was founded. The first of these was the 1986 BBC Domesday Project , which included text (entered on BBC Micro computers) and photographs from over 1 million contributors in the UK , and covering the geography, art, and culture of the UK. This was the first interactive multimedia encyclopedia (and was also the first major multimedia document connected through internal links), with the majority of articles being accessible through an interactive map of the UK. The user-interface and part of the content of the Domesday Project were emulated on a website until 2008. [ 204 ] One of the most successful early online encyclopedias incorporating entries by the public was h2g2 , which was created by Douglas Adams and is run by the BBC . The h2g2 encyclopedia was relatively light-hearted, focusing on articles which were both witty and informative. Both of these projects had similarities with Wikipedia, but neither gave full editorial freedom to public users. A similar non-wiki project, the GNUPedia project, co-existed with Nupedia early in its history; however, it has been retired and its creator, free software figure Richard Stallman , has lent his support to Wikipedia. [ 22 ]

Wikipedia has also spawned several sister projects, which are also run by the Wikimedia Foundation . The first, "In Memoriam: September 11 Wiki," [ 205 ] created in October 2002, [ 206 ] detailed the September 11 attacks ; this project was closed in October 2006. Wiktionary , a dictionary project, was launched in December 2002; [ 207 ] Wikiquote , a collection of quotations, a week after Wikimedia launched, and Wikibooks , a collection of collaboratively written free textbooks and annotated texts. Wikimedia has since started a number of other projects, including Wikiversity , a project for the creation of free learning materials and the provision of online learning activities. [ 208 ] None of these sister projects, however, has come to meet the success of Wikipedia.

Several languages of Wikipedia also maintain a reference desk, where volunteers answer questions from the general public. According to a study by Pnina Shachaf in the Journal of Documentation, the quality of the Wikipedia reference desk is comparable to a standard library reference desk, with an accuracy of 55%. [ 209 ]

Other websites centered on collaborative knowledge base development have drawn inspiration from or inspired Wikipedia. Some, such as Susning.nu , Enciclopedia Libre , Hudong , Baidu Baike , and WikiZnanie likewise employ no formal review process, whereas others use more traditional peer review , such as Encyclopedia of Life , Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy , Scholarpedia , h2g2 , and Everything2 . The online wiki-based encyclopedia Citizendium was started by Wikipedia co-founder Larry Sanger in an attempt to create an "expert-friendly" Wikipedia. [ 210 ] [ 211 ] [ 212 ]

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  1. ^ Jonathan Sidener. "Everyone's Encyclopedia" . The San Diego Union-Tribune . http://www.signonsandiego.com/uniontrib/20041206/news_mz1b6encyclo.html . Retrieved 2006-10-15 .  
  2. ^ a b c "Five-year Traffic Statistics for Wikipedia.org" . Alexa Internet . http://www.alexa.com/data/details/traffic_details/wikipedia.org?range=5y&size=large&y=t . Retrieved 2010-05-22 .  
  3. ^ Some versions, such as the English language version, contain non-free content.
  4. ^ In some parts of the world, the access to Wikipedia had been blocked.
  5. ^ Mike Miliard (2008-03-01). "Wikipediots: Who Are These Devoted, Even Obsessive Contributors to Wikipedia?" . Salt Lake City Weekly . http://www.cityweekly.net/utah/article-5129-feature-wikipediots-who-are-these-devoted-even-obsessive-contributors-to-wikipedia.html . Retrieved 2008-12-18 .  
  6. ^ Bill Tancer (2007-05-01). "Look Who's Using Wikipedia" . Time . http://www.time.com/time/business/article/0,8599,1595184,00.html . Retrieved 2007-12-01 . "The sheer volume of content [...] is partly responsible for the site's dominance as an online reference. When compared to the top 3,200 educational reference sites in the US, Wikipedia is #1, capturing 24.3% of all visits to the category"   Cf. Bill Tancer (Global Manager, Hitwise), "Wikipedia, Search and School Homework" , Hitwise : An Experian Company ( Blog ), March 1, 2007. Retrieved December 18, 2008.
  7. ^ Alex Woodson (2007-07-08). "Wikipedia remains go-to site for online news" . Reuters . http://www.reuters.com/article/internetNews/idUSN0819429120070708 . ??????? 2007/12/16. "Online encyclopedia Wikipedia has added about 20 million unique monthly visitors in the past year, making it the top online news and information destination, according to Nielsen//NetRatings."  
  8. ^ a b "Top 500" . Alexa . http://www.alexa.com/site/ds/top_sites?ts_mode=global&lang=none . Retrieved 2009-10-13 .  
  9. ^ Wikipedia.org Site Info . Alexa . http://www.alexa.com/siteinfo/wikipedia.org?p=&r= . Retrieved 2010-07-13  
  10. ^ How I started Wikipedia, presentation by Larry Sanger
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